Test Your Worldview

Religions, Cults & Worldviews: Valuable Answers for Valid Questions.

The following test is a general guide to helping us examine and ultimately define the world view we already hold. It will eventually be an automated results test but for now it is completed via manual entry.

The test is phrased with the pronoun “we” which applies to the human race in general. The idea is for us to think in generalities to determine our view of the world, how it works, how it applies to us, the people in it, and how we relate to them, and they to us. Obviously, there are no wrong answers and similar to an enneagram test, the more honest you are, the more accurate the results. Also, our world view can change over time.

1. How can we “know” something?

    1. Empiricism – knowledge is acquired via sensory perception via direct observation

    1. Rationalism – knowledge can be acquired by both intuition and deductive reasoning. Reality has a “rational” structure and it can be “known” by logical principles.

    1. Representationalism – knowledge is just our own perception of it according to our experience as a “veil of perception” prevents first-hand knowledge of the actual existing world.

    1. Constructivism – Knowledge is my view constructed of my own perception & social experience apart from any “objective” understanding

    1. Biblical (innatism+rationalism) – I am born with some knowledge, acquire some by social experience, deductive reason, and revelation from the Creator of the Universe.

  1. Transcendentalism – I can know divine truth by way of its transcending the natural world and all physical existence and reaching my mind. I don’t need organized religion or intellectualism.

2. How can you justify a belief in something?

    1. Constructivism: Truth exists & I can justify a belief by my perceptions & social experiences

    1. Empiricism: Only by sensory experience and perception. “Seeing is believing!”

    1. Evidentialism: Judicial – eye witnesses, evidence (archaeology), testimony etc

    1. Solipsism: We cant justify a belief as everything outside of ourselves is illusory

    1. Rationalism: We can justify a belief by way of deductive reasoning and logic

    1. Combination of c and e

  1. Post Modernism: There is no “truth” per se so beliefs can only justified to ourselves and by ourselves as it is our own internal experiences and perceptions that lead to belie

3. What is matter and existence?

    1. Realism – All things exist independently of our perception, beliefs, reasoning

    1. Determinism – All things were brought by cause and effect beginning with the Big Bang.

    1. Dualism – Some things are physical in nature and other things are spiritual in nature and are generally separate from each other. Although each can affect or impact the other.

    1. Monism – Everything is composed of one fundamental kind of “stuff”. All is one without division. There is no “mind” separate from body nor anything of a “spiritual” nature

    1. Reductionism – Everything is a collection of basic substances that behave in regular ways

    1. Physicalism – All matter and existence is nothing more than physical properties which are better understood over the course of time by the physical sciences.

    1. Biblical (Realism+Dualism) – All things which are seen are physical substance things unseen (apart from God), some of which are spiritual, are created entities by God and exist independently of our perception, beliefs, and reasoning and are sustained by God

  1. Materialism: All things are composed of material substance and all phenomena is simply the interaction material entities.

4. What are we?

    1. Monism: We are a collection of physio-chemical entities like atoms and/or molecules

    1. Existentialism: I am a product of my own experiences and I provide the meaning and authenticity for my own existence.

    1. Physicalism: I am nothing more than a physical construct of physical substance.

    1. Materialism: I am material substance only without spirit or consciousness.

    1. Naturalism: We are the product of nature which is the only thing that exists. I do not have a soul or spirit, there is no God or “super” natural existence or phenomena, just nature.

  1. Biblical: We are created beings from the dust of the earth with body, soul (mind), & spirit

5. Where did everything come from?

    1. Naturalism/Atheism: Big Bang or similar theory whereby all life evolved

    1. Theism: A Creator of some kind

    1. Agnosticism: Can’t know the answer to this question

    1. Mormonism: Everything always existed in some way, shape, or form

    1. Deism: A Creator started it but turned it over to run itself like a clock or machine.

  1. Nihilism: We don’t really exist, therefore nothing has an origin but rather is a construct of our mind and therefore is not based in anything of reality i.e. Chinese philosophy or in pop culture “The Matrix”

6. What is our purpose?

    1. Atheist: Existentialism – We have no purpose except to live the best life we can & then die

    1. Non Theist: Buddhism – Our purpose is to escape the cycle of pain & achieve perfect bliss

    1. Pantheist: Hinduism – Our purpose is to work off our bad deeds from past lives until we escape the cycle of reincarnation and achieve perfect oneness with the universe. (Moksha)

    1. Atheist: Humanism – Our purpose is to live a good life that is kind and productive toward all humanity and then die.

    1. Theist: Christianity – Our purpose is to glorify God the Creator and enjoy him forever.

  1. Theism: Islam and/or Mormonism – Our purpose is to achieve heaven by fulfilling the requirements given by the prophet in his holy book and to die and then live in paradise

7. Who or What is God To You??

    1. Atheism: God is a fictitious myth created as a crutch for those who can’t cope with reality in life.

    1. Pantheism: God is the composition of all things everywhere seen and unseen.

    1. Non Theist Eastern: God is an idea of proper living & conduct which we all must aspire to

    1. Monotheism: Islam – God is a single great spirit that has great expectations of our life which He has revealed to his prophet in his holy book.

    1. Polytheism: LDS – God is one of many gods but the only one with whom we have to do.

    1. Monotheism: Christianity – God is a single Deity in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit – one essence, one substance

  1. Agnostic Nihilism: We don’t or can’t really know about anything called “God” one way or another so discussion and thought about the concept is nonsense.

8. Who or What is in Charge of the Universe?

    1. Atheism/Naturalism: Nothing is in charge of the universe it began on its own and sustains itself

    1. Pantheism/New Age: We are all collectively one with the universe & can be collectively in charge of it.

    1. Monotheism: There is a God is in charge of the Universe, He created it and sustains it.

    1. Polytheism: Mormonism – There are many gods in charge of the universe.

    1. Agnostic: Solipsism – We don’t really know if there is a universe or not because nothing exists outside of our own mind and experiences.

    1. Naturalism: Nature is in charge of the universe and the universe is governed by the laws of nature.

  1. Animism – Spirits are in charge of various elements within the universe and the universe on the whole.

9. What is the right and correct way to behave in life?

    1. Consequentialism – As long as the result is “morally good” to me it doesn’t matter what I do to achieve it. The ends justify the means.

    1. Utilitarianism – Everything I do should be to the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people. The well-being of the many outweighs the well-being of the individual.

    1. Hedonism –All that I do must be in pursuit of happiness & pleasure while avoiding all pain“Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we die” – mentioned explicitly in the Bible – Eccl 8:15, Isa 22:13, ICor 15:32

    1. Altruism – I should behave in a way that benefits others especially when it doesn’t benefit me.

    1. Egoism – All things that I do should be in my own best interest and be to my own benefit.

    1. Animism – I hope for the best and do whatever I can to bring about good luck and fortune.

    1. Biblical – All that I do must be an expression of love for The God of the Bible first and love for other people in the same way that I love myself.

10. Is Mankind Basically Good or Basically Evil?

    1. Nihilism/Skepticism: Mankind is neither good nor evil as neither concept exists.

    1. Humanism/Naturalism: Mankind is basically good but gets morally hindered by social experience and perception

    1. Atheism/Darwinism: Mankind is basically good and grows into a more moral and civilized being as he evolves.

    1. Environmentalism: Mankind is basically evil and if left to himself would destroy the human race and its environment.

    1. Biblical Christianity: Mankind is basically evil at conception by way of the transmission of an evil sickness called sin which began with the first man and woman and he grows more evil and corrupt over time.

  1. Atheism/Darwinism: Mankind is basically good and evil does not exist – we are all just “dancing to our DNA”.

15. How do you respond to times of great distress?

    1. Nihilism: Mankind is neither good nor evil as neither concept exists.

    1. Humanism/Naturalism: Mankind is basically good but gets morally hindered by social experience and perception. But through evolution and education will grow into a more moral and civilized being over time.

    1. Environmentalism: Mankind is basically evil and if left to himself would destroy the human race and its environment.

    1. Biblical Christianity: Mankind is basically evil at conception by way of the transmission of an evil sickness called sin which began with the first man and woman and he grows more evil and corrupt over time.

    1. Atheism/Darwinism: Mankind is basically good and evil does not exist – we are all just “dancing to our DNA”.

  1. Skepticism: Its doubtful whether morals actually exist as they cannot be traced to a verifiable source therefore humans cannot be considered either inherently “good” or “evil”.

16. How should society be managed or “governed”?

    1. Communism – Society should pool its total resources and appoint a board and chairman to oversee the equal distribution of all goods and each should work according to his ability and each should receive according to his need.

    1. Socialism – Society should turn over all major industry to government control while permitting smaller and medium business ownership to provide for basic health needs and welfare.

    1. Theocracy – Society should be run by one or more representatives of God and ensure that the community operates by the laws spelled out by that God through the leader’s interpretation of sacred writings.

    1. Democracy – The majority should make the governing decisions of the land by way of popular vote, judicial, and legislative decision and impose regulation on major industry to prevent abuse while permitting (and regulating) medium and small business

    1. Monarchy – A competent leader in the form of a King or Queen who follows an upright and good moral code should make the governing decisions of land with input from nobility.

    1. Anarchy – All organized government is bad and unnecessary. Society should be allowed to just exist and live free in the land doing as they deem best without any interference of a governmental structure.

    1. Globalism – There should a mass unification of all societies on earth and national divisions and boundaries should be done away with to facilitate a worldwide freedom and interaction between all citizens. It should be governed by representatives of all major hemispheres

  1. Biblical – We should abide peacefully and obediently by the authority that we have been placed under while looking to the future return and reign of God incarnate in the person of Jesus Christ, a Divine Monarchy which is the only perfect government there can be.

17. What entity is best qualified in a given society to lead that society?

    1. Democracy: A Majority Of People is the most fair leadership a society can ask for

    1. Communism: The State itself as set up by the people should lead the society

    1. Monarchy, Facism: A Single Person is best to lead a society as there are no bureaucracies or red tape to get things done. Just one person who is the most capable to do the job.

    1. Theocracy: Priests or Clerics have the word of God for governing the land so who best to lead than the very representatives of God Himself?

    1. Representative Republic: Representatives of People should be elected by the people and represent their best interests in legislative meetings where leadership is required.

    1. Socialism: A combination of Representatives and The State

    1. Anarchy: No one person or organized group should lead, we should all lead ourselves as qualified individuals of our own lives & not mess with anyone else – no taxes necessary.

  1. Biblical: The King of Kings – Jesus Christ is the most qualified person to lead as He is the Creator and Sustainer of all things, no one is more qualified or more wise or just to lead./li>

18. In A Wealthy Country, Who Should Own That Wealth?

    1. Communism: Government should own all the wealth then distribute it according to each person’s need.

    1. Meritocracy: Individuals who earned it with innovation and/or hard work should own the wealth that they have worked for. If a man doesn’t work, neither shall he eat.

    1. Oligarchy: Individuals of Nobility or Rank – Those who were born with it, should then distribute it by creating employment, giving to the church, etc.

    1. Socialism: Most should be owned by government to avoid being oppressed by the “rich” but some should be owned by the people to give them a sense of “freedom”

  1. Theocracy: The Church/Mosque/Synagogue/Temple should own it all and then distribute it according to each person’s need so that “no man lacks”

19. If circumstances remain as they are, what is the future of mankind?

    1. Fatalist – All events that are going to happen have been predetermined ahead of time so we should all just resign ourselves to our fate. “Everything happens for a reason!”

    1. Environmentalist – Mankind is raping his environment and is killing off his habitat, unless the government steps in and saves man from himself. We will all be destroyed with no future.

    1. Biblical – Mankind grows more corrupt every day and is storing up wrath for himself the longer he refuses to repent and return to his Creator. There will be Divine judgment on the earth.

    1. Atheist – Life on earth is all there is, so we should re-educate ourselves to live better and more productive lives & take care of the earth around us until the day of death where it all ends.

    1. Scientism – Through reason, logic, and use of scientific technology the world is being made a better place and will only be made better over time and evolution.

  1. Post-Modernism – Science and technology have been abused in the past and blindly following them will lead to a dysfunctional, unhappy, dystopian future

11. Does Evil Exist?

    1. Nihilism/Skeptic/Christian Science: There is no evil in the world, it is the illusion of unenlightened people.

    1. Biblical Christianity: Evil is the result of a curse due to rebellion against the Creator along with perpetual poor choices starting with the very first man and woman to this very day. Mankind is born with it, as a result of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

    1. Atheism/Humanism/Naturalism/Darwinism: Evil exists as a result of poor behavioral choices from one person towards another. It is inherent in DNA (nature), inborn naturally, Deity nothing to do with it. It is nurtured, and shaped by experience: people, stimuli, etc.

    1. Animism: Evil comes from the wicked spirits that move on the earth and sometimes possess trees, rivers, animals, and people

  1. Hinduism: Evil comes from a cyclical series of bad choices over the course of thousands of years of repeated lives and sometimes life forms.
  2. Transcendentalism: Evil is a construct of the natural world and those trapped only in physical existence but it no longer exists for those who have escaped by way of rising above, or “transcended” such constructs

12. Why do good things happen to good people?

    1. Atheism/Humansim: Its a matter of pure chance, not luck, nor destiny, just chance that good happens to this person or to that person. Some good things happen to people because their behaviour warrants it as a type of reward but both recipient and rewarder act as independent agents.

    1. Fatalism/Hinduism: What goes around, comes around, its the law of the universe (not a Deity) If you do good, inevitably good will come back around to you and will happen in a similar way to how you were good to someone else. When and how this “karma” is carried out is ruled by the cosmos and not the do-gooder per se.

    1. Theism: Islam, Roman Catholicism – God rewards good people with good things as He sees fit, but those people must do good things to earn his benevolence

  1. Biblical Christianity: There are no “good” people for all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God. All truly good things come from the “Father of lights” (God) and they come as an act of grace to all of mankind as a demonstration of the goodness of God even to those that are his enemies and hate Him (all mankind). Those that have repented and been forgiven of their sins are sons and daughters of God. Even any good that those people receive is a gift from God and they are to be thankful that any good comes to them.

13. Why do bad things happen to good people or good things to bad people?

    1. Atheism / Humanism: Its a matter of pure chance, not luck, nor destiny, just chance much of the time. At other times bad/evil comes on good people because there are those on the earth that have not evolved in their thinking (usually religious people) and who need educating or re-educating to think properly (Bill Maher, Richard Dawkins etc). It can also be an oppressive government that requires replacing with Marxist principles which puts the people in charge of the state and the the people-state in charge of the affairs whereby all good and bad is distributed by that corrected government.

    1. Fatalism / Pessimism: Because there is no rhyme or reason to the world – bad will happen to us all. It is only a matter of time.

    1. Monotheism: Islam – Allah is all-knowing and he sends bad things to good people (good Muslims) for a reason that is known to him and doesn’t need to be known by his followers. He does not give good things to bad people – that is satan that gives good things to bad people

    1. Monotheism: Various Denominational Christianity, Orthodox Judaism – Some bad is caused by the person, the rest is the result of a fallen, broken world; Bad things can happen to us all at any time we must be willing to take both good and bad from The Lord. Good things are sent even to evil people by a Deity as a special gift to teach them to be good

    1. Biblical Christianity: There are no “good” people as all are fallen with a sinful nature that is in rebellion to God. However, those who have Christ’s righteousness imputed to them by faith in His payment for their sins on the cross and his victorious resurrection, can still experience “bad things” or “evil” committed against them, even though they are reconciled to the all-powerful God of the universe who has the power to prevent such things from happening to them. The reason for this is due to a number of reasons: they live in a fallen world and among fallen creation which results in disaster, pain, and suffering as all the creation is still under the curse brought on it by the rebellion of Adam. Secondly, evil comes upon Christians because of the fallen angels (demons) that despise and seek to subvert all things good that comes from the God who has redeemed these people. Third, problems and trouble are sometimes a form of divine the part of the Christian and as such, this chastisement is carefully controlled and administered to bring about a greater maturity and fruitfulness to the believer. Jesus promised, “…in this world you WILL have trouble but take heart, I have overcome the world”s

    1. Relativism: The notion of “bad” or “good” people or ‘things’ is highly subjective and depends on which specific things and people you mean. The “bad” thing may actually be a good thing in disguise it just depends on who it is that is receiving it and what the thing is that they received.

    1. Pantheism: Good is a reward received in this life from good deeds done in a past life.

  1. Cynicism / Pessimism: There is no rhyme or reason whatsoever to the universe. Life is not fair and there is no explanation for it and most likely there never will be. Expect the worst so you might be pleasantly surprised.

14. What is the most effective behavior to live life the best I can?

    1. Hedonism: Live for pleasure, escape pain: Eat, drink, and be merry for tomorrow we die

    1. Determinism: I must do good toward others so that I can experience good myself: What goes around comes around.

    1. Utilitarianism: I am part of the world community & all my behavior must be to benefit the whole world community: We’re all in this together so roll up your sleeves and get to work.

    1. Biblical: My choices and behaviors in life should be preceded and accompanied by prayer to the God of the Bible and in my interaction with other people, I must put their needs above my own: Do unto others as you would have them do to you.

    1. Secular Humanism: I am obligated to do kind, productive, good things toward others since I am only alive for a short time. It is my duty to behave this way as a member of the human race.

    1. Economic Materialism: I am only here on earth a short time so I must accumulate all the pleasurable items and objects that I can to facilitate a successful life: He who dies with the most toys wins.

  1. Pragmatism: All that I do should have a usefulness, productiveness, and practicality to it. I should just “get things done” without being slowed down by “ideas and concepts”.

World View Test Result Examples

    1. Someone might feel that the Earth is dying, mankind is growing more self-destructive, the future looks bleak and there is little or nothing we can do about it
      1. Such a person might be said to hold to a “Fatalist” world view

    1. Another person may claim to believe in or trust in a God yet never acknowledges any type of god in either times of crisis or in times of great prosperity
      1. Such a person might claim to have a “Theist” world view and be unaware that they truly operate by an “Atheist” World View

  1. The same can be said for a person who claims an “atheist” World View, yet in distress they seek out a Deity in desperation (foxhole theism)

A Humanist might answer the above questions as follows:

A Christian theist might answer the questions in the following way:


The Universe has been eternal OR the Universe sprang into being spontaneously (Big Bang)

Everything comes from the Creator of the Universe, known as God, it was all created “the seen from the unseen” through the person of His Son Jesus Christ.

Good and bad is the result of either nature or nurturing, most probably nurturing. People are basically good and if given the proper modeling, teaching, information, apart from religion and superstition, will make the proper choices. In essence, good and bad is the result of good and bad choices which is the result of good or bad modeling
Good happens to people because of the grace of God. We believe that every good thing proceeds from “Father of Lights”. Personal comfort and happiness are wholly separate things from “good”. Sometimes a thing can be ‘good’ for us but yet “uncomfortable” or even “painful”. At other times a thing that is evil can be quite “comfortable” and “feel good” to a Christian even though it is overtly or covertly harmful to another individual. Christians are careful to keep the concept of “good” separate from the concepts of “personal comfort and happiness”. We believe that “bad things” happen sometimes as a result of a person’s choices but at other times as a result of living in a world that is “fallen” which means that it is not functioning according to the original plan of God and as a result of the original sin of Adam, sickness, pain, suffering, and death were all introduced to a perfect environment and perpetuate until the time that they are ultimately dealt with by His Son Jesus.

Renowned atheist Richard Dawkins has mentioned in interview that he no longer concedes the existence of evil. Man is basically good, evil, if such a thing even exists, will be reduced as man is educated that he must allow others the same freedom of choice that he enjoys.
Why is there evil in the world and how does it get solved? The presence of evil is as a result of the events described above, also as a result of an enemy described to us by the Holy Spirit (in the Bible) as the ‘accuser’ satan, ‘slanderer’ the devil, or the enemy of our souls that accuses us night and day to God. All sources of evil: Satan, the Fallen World, and man’s fleshly nature, will be dealt with at the second coming of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. There is no contradiction (as is supposed by the atheist) of the simultaneous existence of an “All loving God” who would want to do away with evil, an “All Powerful God” who could do away with evil, and the presence of evil. What the atheist has failed to grasp is the understanding that an all-powerful, all-loving God may have already chosen to deal with evil over a specified time. And the current temporary existence of evil is actually serving a higher purpose in God’s plan.

We do good things for other people because it is the right thing to do and it makes the world a better place. Lack of knowledge, lack of respect for the human being. Bad modeling are causes for personal shortcomings, but on the whole very little bad or evil is ever done by a true humanist who understands the principles of respect.
A Christian does good things for people because the God that created us has done great things for us. He loved us while we didn’t care about (or even hated) Him. The Eternal Son suffered and died to pay the eternal cost of our sins against the Eternal Father. He then asks of us to love one another as He has loved us. To love those that hate us and spitefully use us. Loving them involves doing good for them. We do bad things on occasion because God tells us that we still have the task of putting to death our “old sin nature” which “grows corrupt”. This is a contention that will continue throughout the Christian’s life. He or she is not perfect, but are being perfected and with maturity, the acts of “badness” will decrease (hopefully sooner than later).

We believe what we hear if it is from the perspective of a person who sees man as the center of the universe and not God. If it is from a Theist perspective, it is rejected outright because religion is detrimental to human advancement. We do not believe everything we see in that many supposed eyewitnesses to “miracles” are nothing more than optical illusions, yet-unexplained phenomena, or worse, the deception of a charlatan. (However, we still claim that the Christian god is false because we can’t see him or have not seen him. We’re funny that way)

We do not believe everything we hear or see but rather, we weigh everything according to the Word of God. We also pray for wisdom and discernment from The Holy Spirit when faced with a situation that requires knowledge of truth and warning of error. Our eyes can deceive us, so we walk by faith that our God will guide our steps. There is a way that seems right to a man but in the end it leads to death Proverbs 14:12
In times of great distress, we trust in ourselves personally or designated organizations and governmental institutions that have been created by man to address the difficulty (i.e. hospitals, FEMA, etc.). We are also willing to seek the support of (or be a support to) friends and family. We are NOT, however, inclined in any way to trust in an unseen deity or a religious organization that does so. Religion and unseen deities are nothing more than a crutch for the weak. In times of great success, we just chalk it up to the fact that a person does not need a god or gods or some religion to be successful. Since we are in control of our own destiny, we have only ourselves to thank for our success. It is the result of our own hard work not that of any “benevolent deity”
In times of great distress we rely on the historically evident power, testified (in some cases unto death) upon by previous believers, of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, all loving God who gave His Son as evidence of his love, resurrected Him as evidence of His power. To this God we Christians pray and trust in during great distress. We do not adhere to the heresy that all of our problems will instantly disappear, they may not at all, however, we join our voices to the three young men Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego who, under great distress, proclaimed, “Our God is able to deliver us, and even if He does not i.e. chooses not to, still we will praise Him.” and again with the ancient sage Job we cry, “Though He slay me, still I will praise Him”. Because a Christian does not base their view of the world and God in light of their circumstances, rather, we view our world and its circumstances in light of our God.

How Can We Know Something?

Epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief and how it is acquired, either before sensory experience (a priori) or only after sensory experience (a posteriori). This section of our overall worldview determines how we perceive and process information and differentiate between truth and falsehood. Are some beliefs properly basic e.g. the knowledge of God? Or are beliefs constructed from a web of many other beliefs? Epistemology seeks to answer this question.

Select each of the terms in the circles below to reveal in the large center circle, how each of the following epistemological worldviews determine how we can know something:


Knowledge is acquired via sensory perception via direct observation


Knowledge can be acquired by both intuition and deductive reasoning. Reality has a “rational” structure and it can be “known” by logical principles.


Knowledge is just our own perception of it according to our experience as a “veil of perception” prevents first-hand knowledge of the actual existing world.


Knowledge is my view constructed of my own perception & social experience apart from any “objective” understanding


This is a view which could be

labeled as a combination of both

innatism and rationalism – It states that we are born with some knowledge, acquire some by social experience, deductive reason, and revelation from the Creator of the Universe.


Posits that one can know divine truth by way of its transcending the natural world and all physical existence and reaching my mind. The transcendentalist believes they don’t need organized religion or intellectualism.


Dualism vs Monism

Dualism, two realities

– body (material) and mind

(soul, spirit, immaterial),

vs Monism, one reality – body only (naturalism). Problematic when a psychologist is a monist and prescribes medication

for a mind issue when it is

only a "body" issue.

(reductionist approach)

How Can You Justify A Belief In Something?

Select each of the terms in the circles below to reveal in the large center circle, how, using each of the following epistemological worldviews, we can justify a belief in something:


Only by sensory experience and perception. “Seeing is believing!”


We can justify a belief by way of deductive reasoning and logic.

Post Modernism

There is no “truth” per se so beliefs can only justified to ourselves and by ourselves as it is our own internal experiences and perceptions that lead to belief


Three Biblical methods

by which beliefs are justified:

  1. General Revelation - this is the revelation of the truth of the existence and glory of the one and only true God and Creator (Rom 1:20)
  2. Conscience - knowledge of right & wrong; good & evil
  3. Specific Revelation: The Scriptures/Word of God

We cant justify a belief as everything outside of ourselves is illusory

Cumulative Case

Judicial evidence: eye witnesses, evidence (archaeology), testimony etc

What is Knowledge

    1. A Priori – non empirical – knowledge can be acquired by reason “prior” to experience
    2. A Posteriori – empirical – knowledge is only possible (posterior) as a part of certain sensory experience in addition to reason. i.e. geographical location.
    3. Belief – We can’t say, “I know that a thing is true – but I don’t believe it” although it may be a phraseology in use within the Western vernacular it is a nonsensical statement. Our knowledge of truth and our belief are inextricably tied to one another.
    4. Justification – reasonable belief as opposed to irrational belief based on random chance

What is Truth

  1. “What is truth?” – this was the question asked of Jesus by Pontius Pilate. Aristotle attempted to define truth as, “To say of something which is that it is, or of something which is not that it is not, is true.”
  2. Untruth: Aristotle defines falsehood/untruth as the following: “To say of something which is that it is not, or to say of something which is not that it is, is false.”
  3. Relative truth – This concept is embraced/developed via the constructive methodology: after sensory perception and experience (a posteriori);
    1. This is a truth as it exists within a person to that person but not necessarily in the external world as it truly is. e.g. “It is cold in here” or “That clown is scary!”
  4. Absolute truth – prior to sensory perception and experience (a priori) or a priori + a posteriori – this is a truth as it exists within the external world around us. e.g. “What goes up must come down due to the law of gravity” or “Cats give birth to cats”

Common Epistemological World Views


In contrast to empiricism, rationalism holds that reason provides the best (or only) path to truth. As reason is separate from sense and faculty, which empiricism requires, rationalism is considered a contrast belief to empiricism. Famous rationalists are Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz.


As opposed to “rationalism”, empiricism dictates that all knowledge is derived from experience and not from reason. This theory of epistemology relies heavily on sense experience and when pressed, most empiricists have to admit that they don’t entirely live their lives by empiricism and in fact no one can.


  1. A person inclined to question or doubt all accepted opinions.
  2. Philosophy an ancient or modern philosopher who denies the possibility of knowledge, or even rational belief, in some sphere.
  3. The doctrine that holds that true knowledge is not possible

There are primarily two types of skeptic, the “hard” skeptic who claims that objective or absolute truth cannot be obtained whereas the “soft” skeptic might claim that it is impossible to say whether objective or absolute truth can or cannot be known. Both positions are self-refuting in that the skeptic has to claim (and cling to) objective/absolute truth in order to deny its existence or its ability to be obtained!


“Nothing proceeds from itself. Nothing is given” – Gaston Bachelard

A fairly recent view of epistemology which contends that knowledge is “constructed” by way of human perception and social experience along with external convention. It is this view that is embraced when positing “subjective” truth in contrast to “objective” truth. Constructivism holds that there is no one single superior methodology in that there may be equally efficient methodologies held by someone with a different societal or experiential “construct”. In some veins of constructivist thought, change can only occur in a person’s life if they engage in experiences outside their world view. In a sociological sense the constructivist might claim that those things which appear “obvious” and “natural” to a person are nothing more than manifestations, invention, and influences of that individual’s culture.


Materialism (sometimes referred to as physicalism) is the epistemological theory that physical matter is the only reality and that psychological states such as emotions, reason, thought, and desire will eventually be explained as physical functions. Some strict materialists might cling to the notion that reality is only comprised of those entities or particles discovered by physicists.


An epistemic view that a belief can be justified if based on a basic or foundational belief or set of beliefs which needs no justification as they are a foundational belief which is of a different sort of belief than a non-foundational one. Only non-foundational beliefs require being justified even if they are a “chain of beliefs” so long as they are supported by a foundational belief. Those that adhere to and propagate this epistemology claim that some basic propositions must exist (i.e. Reformed Theology’s argument for the existence of God). Opponents claim that it falls into “Agrippa’s Trilemma” of either becoming an infinite regress, circular reasoning, or a dogmatic stopping point which are all logical fallacies.

Postmodernism / Relativism

A belief system that stretches across epistemology, ethics/morality, and religion which holds to the idea that absolutes do not exist in the realms of knowledge, morality, & truth but rather exist only in direct relation to the culture, history, and society in which they are encountered. Critics point out that the flaw of this belief system is that it requires “absolute” knowledge and truth to claim there is “no absolute” truth or knowledge.


“The meaning of a proposition is its method of verification”

This epistemic view holds that all propositions are cognitively meaningful either by definitional analysis or verifiable by the senses. If a thing appears to be untrue/false by definition (falsifiable) and is itself not verifiable by sensory experience it is false. This approach to ‘meaning’ has been used in an effort to discount philosophy of religion and metaphysics. Both Metaphysicians and theologians have pointed out that the problem with this epistemology is that verificationism renders itself false by its own criterion. To which proponents of this position allowed for a “weak sense” of verifiability in which a proposition can be rendered verifiable if sensory experience could cause that proposition to be “probable”. This weakening of a flawed position then opened the door for both metaphysics and religion to be verifiable.


Moral truths or external objects exist independently of the individual mind or perception and that which can’t be “demonstrated” apart from one’s perception of it, cannot be classified as “provably real”. The primary founder of this epistemology was Ayn Rand who was influenced greatly by Aristotle. In order to be an objectivist one must endeavor to be emotionless, neutral, detached and avoiding of presuppositionalism in their thinking.


A somewhat obscure and simple system of belief that by its very simplicity affects nearly every category of one’s world view that adheres to it. Solipsism is simply the belief that nothing can be known outside of one’s self. In fact nothing can be known to even exist outside of one’s self. Its as if the individual wanders around in their own tiny world of reality and all their surroundings are just a dream! Because of its odd simplicity I have placed it in a number of categories. In this case, with regards to religion, it is similar to the hard agnostic view that knowledge of God cannot be known, obviously because he would exist outside of one’s self.


This view rejects objective moral values and structures. It has been referred to as epistemic “nothingness”. Ambivalent transcendentalist thinker Friedrich Nietzche described nihilism as a “fate that haunts Western civilization. The second definition of nihilism in this case is a sub-category of epistemology in the sense that it asserts that nothing in the world has a real existence. Christian Science holds a nihilistic view with regards to sin, sickness, and pain. They assert that these things do not exist but are a figment of the imagination. It is for this reason that traditional medical aid (doctors) are rejected. c.f. Church of Scientology.


A step-sister of empiricism, this view holds that knowledge can be acquired only through direct observation and experimentation rather than through metaphysics and theology. This group tends to be skeptical of anything which cannot be directly observed.


A worldview which stresses that human existence is the sum of the actions that one takes. It can be either atheistic (normative) or religious (rare) and places an emphasis on the freedom and precariousness of the human situation. Famous existentialists are Friedrich Nietzche and Soren Kierkergard.


This view believes that the highesdt (and only) knowledge that exists is that which is derived from science – particularly natural science. This view utterly rejects the idea that knowledge can be derived from moral, religious or aesthetic experiences. It should be noted that those that claim this epistemology usually do not live consistently according to scientism. It is utterly impossible to have informed preference or even to claim to “love” or “hate” a particular thing when these emotional responses cannot come from the sciences.

The Biblical Worldview

Various philosophical worldviews will always lead the inquisitor to the same questions:

    1. How did we get here?
    2. Why am I here?
    3. What is my future, in life and after death?

It is for these questions that we have created this site that visitors may learn of the Biblical worldview which is the most correct and fully answers the three questions above.

Select the graphic below to be taken to a page to learn what the Biblical worldview is:

Take a look at the other systems of belief that comprise your world view:

Do you have a question for our staff here at truthforsaints.com? Please go to our contact page and send it in. We will be happy to give an answer to those who ask. Please note that your question may be utilized as a blog entry for the education of others regarding World Religions, Cults, Christian Denominations, or various World Views.

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